Prokaryotic organisms, like bacteria reproduce through binary fission, where they grow and divide in half. First, their chromosomes (DNA) replicates and the cell enlarges. The cell then divides into two cells as new membranes form to separate the two cells. After cell division, the two new cells each have identical chromosomes. This simple process allows bacteria to reproduce very rapidly.
Single cellular Eukaryotes can also reproduce via binary fission. The process of cell division (mitosis and cytokinesis) is how these organisms reproduce, creating genetically identical offspring.
The main difference between binary fission and budding is how the cytoplasm divides. Binary fission is equal division while budding is an unequal division.
Amoeba reproducing asexually